Key Idea: DNA molecules provide the cells with instructions for assembling protein molecules from amino acids.

Students are expected to know that:

  1. Protein molecules are made up of amino acid subunits linked together in a specific sequence.
  2. DNA molecules provide instructions for linking and ordering amino acids to form protein molecules.
  3. Each sequence of three nucleotides in a molecule of DNA codes for an amino acid.
  4. The set of nucleotides in a DNA molecule that provide instructions for assembling a particular protein molecule from amino acids is called a gene.
  5. 20 different types of amino acids are used to make protein molecules.
  6. A change to the sequence of nucleotides in a gene within a molecule of DNA can alter the protein that is produced.
  7. Changes to the sequence of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA can come from insertions, deletions, or substitutions of one or more nucleotide subunits in a DNA molecule.
  8. Changes to the sequence of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA are called mutations.

Boundaries:

  1. Students are not expected to know the terms: transcription, translation, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, codons, or anticodons.
Percent of students answering correctly (click on the item ID number to view the item and additional data)
Item ID
Number
Knowledge Being Assessed Grades
6–8
Grades
9–12
Select This Item for My Item Bank

RH019003

The way DNA and proteins are related is that DNA provides information for making proteins.

See the Evolution Project

RH020003

DNA provides information for both the types and sequence of amino acids that make up a protein molecule.

See the Evolution Project

RH015002

The information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling amino acids into protein molecules.

See the Original Project

RH020002

DNA provides information for both the types and sequence of amino acids that make up a protein molecule.

See the Original Project

RH019002

The way DNA and proteins are related is that DNA provides information for making proteins.

See the Original Project

RH017001

Proteins are made in an organism by linking amino acids together.

See the Original Project

RH037002

To make proteins in its cells, an animal needs amino acids and instructions for assembling them.

See the Original Project

RH042002

A code indicates which smaller subunits get linked together to form proteins in an organism.

See the Original Project

RH021001

Proteins are made up of amino acids.

See the Original Project

RH044001

Three nucleotides are needed to code for one amino acid, not one, four, or twenty.

See the Original Project

RH016001

DNA is the molecule that provides information for making proteins in an organism, not enzymes, amino acids, or other protein molecules.

See the Original Project

RH028001

There are 20 different types of amino acids that are used to make protein molecules, not one, three, or four.

See the Original Project

RH015003

The information in genes provides instructions for assembling amino acids into protein molecules.

See the Original Project

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Frequency of selecting a misconception

Misconception
ID Number

Student Misconception

Grades
6–8

Grades
9–12

RHM129

Enzymes provide information for making proteins in an organism (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM128

Amino acids provide instructions for making proteins in an organism (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM127

An organism makes proteins from individual carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM101

Four types of amino acids are used to make protein molecules (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM100

Three types of amino acids are used to make protein molecules (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM066

The information in genes provides instructions for assembling chromosomes into DNA (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM065

The information in genes provides instructions for rearranging DNA into traits (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM064

The information in DNA molecules provides instructions for rearranging genes into traits (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM063

Four nucleotides are needed to code for one amino acid (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM062

DNA is made of amino acids (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM044

Organisms eat proteins; they do not make them (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM010

Proteins are composed of DNA or genes (Marbach-Ad, 2001).

See the Original Project

RHM009

DNA is made of protein (Marbach-Ad, 2001).

See the Original Project

Frequency of selecting a misconception was calculated by dividing the total number of times a misconception was chosen by the number of times it could have been chosen, averaged over the number of students answering the questions within this particular idea.

NGSS Statements

Code

Statement

LS1.C HS

The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells.

LS3.A MS

Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.

LS3.A MS

Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.

LS1.C HS

The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells.

LS1.C HS

The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells.

LS3.A MS

Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.

LS1.A HS

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells.

LS1.C HS

The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells.

LS1.A HS

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells.

LS1.A HS

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells.

LS3.A MS

Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.

LS3.A HS

Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species' characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet known function.

LS1.C HS

The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells.

LS3.A MS

Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.