Key Idea: DNA molecules provide the cells with instructions for assembling protein molecules from amino acids.

Students are expected to know that:

  1. Protein molecules are made up of amino acid subunits linked together in a specific sequence.
  2. DNA molecules provide instructions for linking and ordering amino acids to form protein molecules.
  3. Each sequence of three nucleotides in a molecule of DNA codes for an amino acid.
  4. The set of nucleotides in a DNA molecule that provide instructions for assembling a particular protein molecule from amino acids is called a gene.
  5. 20 different types of amino acids are used to make protein molecules.
  6. A change to the sequence of nucleotides in a gene within a molecule of DNA can alter the protein that is produced.
  7. Changes to the sequence of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA can come from insertions, deletions, or substitutions of one or more nucleotide subunits in a DNA molecule.
  8. Changes to the sequence of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA are called mutations.

Boundaries:

  1. Students are not expected to know the terms: transcription, translation, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, codons, or anticodons.
Percent of students answering correctly (click on the item ID number to view the item and additional data)
Item ID
Number
Knowledge Being Assessed Grades
6–8
Grades
9–12
Select This Item for My Item Bank

RH015002

The information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling amino acids into protein molecules.

See the Original Project

RH020002

DNA provides information for both the types and sequence of amino acids that make up a protein molecule.

See the Original Project

RH019002

The way DNA and proteins are related is that DNA provides information for making proteins.

See the Original Project

RH017001

Proteins are made in an organism by linking amino acids together.

See the Original Project

RH037002

To make proteins in its cells, an animal needs amino acids and instructions for assembling them.

See the Original Project

RH042002

A code indicates which smaller subunits get linked together to form proteins in an organism.

See the Original Project

RH021001

Proteins are made up of amino acids.

See the Original Project

RH044001

Three nucleotides are needed to code for one amino acid, not one, four, or twenty.

See the Original Project

RH016001

DNA is the molecule that provides information for making proteins in an organism, not enzymes, amino acids, or other protein molecules.

See the Original Project

RH028001

There are 20 different types of amino acids that are used to make protein molecules, not one, three, or four.

See the Original Project

RH015003

The information in genes provides instructions for assembling amino acids into protein molecules.

See the Original Project

Frequency of selecting a misconception

Misconception
ID Number

Student Misconception

Grades
6–8
Grades
9–12

RHM129

Enzymes provide information for making proteins in an organism (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM128

Amino acids provide instructions for making proteins in an organism (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM127

An organism makes proteins from individual carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen atoms (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM101

Four types of amino acids are used to make protein molecules (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM100

Three types of amino acids are used to make protein molecules (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM066

The information in genes provides instructions for assembling chromosomes into DNA (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM065

The information in genes provides instructions for rearranging DNA into traits (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM064

The information in DNA molecules provides instructions for rearranging genes into traits (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM063

Four nucleotides are needed to code for one amino acid (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM062

DNA is made of amino acids (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM044

Organisms eat proteins; they do not make them (AAAS Project 2061, n.d.).

See the Original Project

RHM010

Proteins are composed of DNA or genes (Marbach-Ad, 2001).

See the Original Project

RHM009

DNA is made of protein (Marbach-Ad, 2001).

See the Original Project

Frequency of selecting a misconception was calculated by dividing the total number of times a misconception was chosen by the number of times it could have been chosen, averaged over the number of students answering the questions within this particular idea.