Key Idea: Different body structures are made up of different types of cells.

Students are expected to know that:

  1. The different body structures of plants and animals (including brain, muscles, skin, and lungs in animals, and stems and flowers in plants) are made up of different types of cells.
  2. The different types of cells that make up the body parts of animals develop from one single cell.
  3. The different types of cells that make up the body parts of plants can develop from one single cell.
  4. After a single cell goes through a series of cell divisions, the cells begin to differentiate into a variety of types of cells with specialized structures and functions. The different types of cells continue to reproduce and further differentiate to form the specialized body structures that make up most multicellular organisms.
  5. Groups of cells work together to perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms. These include.red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all cells of the body, muscle cells, which allow movement of the organism, and nerve cells, which transmit electrical signals between the brain and the rest of the body.

Boundaries:

  1. Students are not expected to know the stages of cell differentiation (e.g., blastula, gastrula) or the role of differential gene expression in cell differentiation.
  2. Students are not expected to know the process of cell differentiation.
  3. Students are not expected to know that plants can reproduce asexually (in which case they come from many cells).
Frequency of selecting a misconception

Misconception
ID Number

Student Misconception

Grades
6–8
Grades
9–12

CEM068

The stems of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.

See the Original Project

CEM067

The flowers of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.

See the Original Project

CEM066

The roots of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.

See the Original Project

CEM065

The leaves of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.

See the Original Project

CEM064

The muscles of animals do not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.

See the Original Project

CEM063

The brain of animals does not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.

See the Original Project

CEM062

The skin of animals does not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.

See the Original Project

CEM061

The lungs of animals do not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.

See the Original Project

CEM060

Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to cells of the lung.

See the Original Project

CEM059

Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to cells of the digestive tract.

See the Original Project

CEM058

Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to nerve cells.

See the Original Project

CEM057

Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to muscle cells.

See the Original Project

Frequency of selecting a misconception was calculated by dividing the total number of times a misconception was chosen by the number of times it could have been chosen, averaged over the number of students answering the questions within this particular idea.