Item MO067003: Even if an engineer makes a good model of an airplane and discovers that it can fly well in the rain, she still cannot be absolutely certain that the real airplane will fly well in the rain unless she actually flies it in the rain.

An engineer wants to know how well an airplane will fly when it is raining. She makes a model of the airplane and finds out that the model is able to fly in the rain. What conclusions can she draw?

  1. She can be absolutely certain that the real airplane will fly well in the rain because the model flew well when it was raining.
  2. She can be absolutely certain that the real airplane will fly well in the rain, but only if her model includes all of the things she thinks might affect how the real airplane flies in the rain.
  3. She cannot be absolutely certain that the real airplane will fly well in the rain unless she actually flies the real airplane in the rain.
  4. She cannot be absolutely certain that the real airplane will fly well in the rain because predictions made using models are never accurate.

Distribution of Responses

Chart showing distrubtion of responses for Item MO067003

Percent of students responding correctly

Overall46%
Grades 6–843%
Grades 9–1249%
Male44%
Female46%
Primary Language is English46%
Primary Language is not English34%

View data table